Jenis struktur kapitalisasi

24 Maret 2021 23:35

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Apa Struktur Kapitalisasi?

Struktur permodalan mengacu pada proporsi hutang dan ekuitas dalam konfigurasi modal suatu perusahaan. Modal adalah cara perusahaan mendanai dirinya sendiri. Ekuitas adalah bagian dari kepemilikan di perusahaan. Ini biasanya terjadi oleh perusahaan yang menerbitkan saham. Hutang adalah pinjaman yang diberikan kepada perusahaan oleh seorang investor. Pinjaman ini biasanya terjadi dalam bentuk penerbitan obligasi. Struktur permodalan menunjukkan seberapa besar pendanaan perusahaan telah diberikan melalui penerbitan saham kepemilikan atau dengan mengambil pinjaman.

Saham ekuitas dan obligasi masing-masing memiliki pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap keuangan perusahaan, pajak yang dibayarkan dan kewajiban untuk pendapatan di masa depan. Struktur permodalan perusahaan memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap ukuran profitabilitas dan kekuatan keuangannya, seperti marjin laba bersih, pengembalian ekuitas, rasio hutang-ekuitas, cakupan bunga dan sebagainya.

Struktur kapitalisasi juga dikenal sebagai struktur modal atau cap structure.

Types of Capitalization Structures

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.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .group-label-title.header {
font-weight: 700;
margin-bottom: 4px;
max-width: 100%;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .group-label .text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .group-label .text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .group-label .text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .group-label .text-label {
font-weight: 400;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .group-label .inner,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .group-label .inner,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .group-label .inner,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .group-label .inner {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-webkit-box-orient: vertical;
-webkit-box-direction: normal;
-ms-flex-direction: column;
flex-direction: column;
-webkit-box-pack: center;
-ms-flex-pack: center;
justify-content: center;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key {
position: absolute;
top: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key .stop {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
margin-bottom: 2px;
-webkit-transition: 0.2s opacity ease-in-out;
transition: 0.2s opacity ease-in-out;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key .stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key .stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key .stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key .stop-swatch {
width: 15px;
height: 15px;
margin-right: 5px;
-webkit-box-flex: 0;
-ms-flex: 0 0 auto;
flex: 0 0 auto;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key .stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key .stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key .stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key .stop-label {
font-size: 13px;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.right {
max-width: 40%;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.left {
padding: 5px 10px 0 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.right {
padding: 5px 0 0 10px;
right: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal.top {
padding: 0 0 15px 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal.bottom {
padding: 20px 0 0 0;
top: auto;
bottom: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal .stops {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-ms-flex-wrap: wrap;
flex-wrap: wrap;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal .stop {
margin-right: 1em;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal.stack .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal.stack .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal.stack .stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal.stack .stops {
display: block;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .color-key.horizontal.stack .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .color-key.horizontal.stack .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .color-key.horizontal.stack .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .color-key.horizontal.stack .stop {
margin-right: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .footer-label-container {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-ms-flex-wrap: wrap;
flex-wrap: wrap;
font-size: 13px;
margin: 20px 0 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .footer-label-container .label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .footer-label-container .label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .footer-label-container .label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .footer-label-container .label {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
margin: 0 10px 5px 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .footer-label-container .num,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .footer-label-container .num,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .footer-label-container .num,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .footer-label-container .num {
margin: 0 5px 0 0;
background: #eee;
-webkit-box-flex: 1;
-ms-flex: 1 0 auto;
flex: 1 0 auto;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .slice,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .label,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .slice,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .slice,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .slice,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .stop {
opacity: 0.6;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .label.group-label {
opacity: 1;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .line-group {
opacity: 0.2;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies .defined-highlight .line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts .defined-highlight .line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies .defined-highlight .line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts .defined-highlight .line-group.highlight-element {
opacity: 1;
font-weight: 700;
}
.chart.png-export .dw-chart-footer .static-image,
.chart.png-export .dw-chart-footer .chart-action-data,
.chart.png-export .dw-chart-footer .dw-data-link {
display: none !important;
}
.chart.png-export a {
color: unset !important;
}
.x-tick-values span,
.y-tick-values span,
.direct-value-label:not(.inverted) span,
.legend-text span,
.x-tick-values tspan,
.y-tick-values tspan,
.y-tick-values {
color: #191919 !important;
fill: #191919 !important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked .bc-grid {
z-index: 0 !important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked .y-axis {
background-color: #191919 !important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked .x-gridline {
background-color: #cecece !important;
}
.legend-text.label {
vertical-align: middle !important;
}
.chart a {
color: #2c40d0;
}
a.source {
text-decoration: none;
}

Types of Capitalization Structures

Firms can either issue either more debt or equity to fund its operations. By issuing equity, firms give up some ownership in the company without the need to pay back investors; by issuing debt, companies increase their leverage by needing to pay back investors. A company’s debt-to-equity ratio is a measure of risk for investors.

AssetsDebtEquity

Source:
Corporate Finance Institute

Chart:

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